Fins are the extended surfaces through which heat transfer takes place by conduction and convection to keep the base surface cool. Fins of various configurations are presently used ranging from automobile engines to cooling of chip in a computer. Fins used presently are solid with different shapes but in the present research such solid fins are compared with solid fins having maximum of 10 numbers of embossings that further increase the surface area for maximum heat transfer.
NIH Funded Articles
- Acculturation and Subclinical Atherosclerosis among U.S. South Asians: Findings from the MASALA study
- Wake-up Strokes Are Similar to Known-Onset Morning Strokes in Severity and Outcome
- Endothelial Cells May Have Tissue-Specific Origins
- Predictors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk among Blacks with Metabolic Syndrome
- Objectively Coding Intervention Fidelity During A Phone-Based Obesity Prevention Study
- Molecular Mechanism Linking BRCA1 Dysfunction to High Grade Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancers with Peritoneal Permeability and Ascites
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Mobbing was defined by Leymann “a form of psychological terrorism that implies an unostentatious and unethical attitude in a systematic form by one or more subjects, usually towards a single individual who, because of this persecution, finds himself in a defenceless condition and becomes object of continuous vexatious and persecutory activities that recur with a systematic frequency and over a period of time that is not short, causing considerable mental, psychosomatic and social suffering” (Leymann, 1988) .
Proximal humeral fractures account for approximately 5% of fractures seen in the emergency department. Despite this relatively high incidence only 15% of these fractures are displaced with an even smaller proportion being severely displaced enough to cause an axillary artery injury. We report a case of an elderly female patient who slipped and fell at home. She presented to our unit complaining of left shoulder pain and an inability to feel or move the involved limb. Imaging studies confirmed the presence of a severely displaced fracture of the proximal humerus and occlusion of the axillary artery. She was taken for open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus followed by immediate axillary artery endovascular stenting.
Sickle cell disease is a prevalent and severe monogenic disorder resulting from a homozygous missense mutation in the β-globin gene that leads to polymerization of hemoglobin S. Clinical manifestations of the disease can be critical with considerable morbidity and mortality. One treatment option for the disease is bone marrow transplantation. However this method is restricted to the patients with an appropriately matched donor. Gene therapy by either gene insertion or gene editing, utilizing patient’s own cell is a primary therapeutic option to cure sickle cell disease. However, very less clinical trials have been performed with genetic therapy for treating Sickle cell disease (SCD). Since a couple of decades significant progress has been made in the area of gene therapy for treating monogenic hemoglobin disorders. Numerous therapies are currently in clinical trial stages or in preclinical stages. The safety and efficacy of gene therapy has been greatly improved with the initial use of γ-retrovirus vectors, followed by next-generation lentivirus vectors, and latest gene editing techniques. Although the clinical interpretation of gene therapy has been successful, it involves some limitations including complex cellular abnormalities, inadequate transgene expression, and challenges in achieving effective and persistent inhibition of polymerization of hemoglobin S. This review intends to discuss gene therapy strategies specific to Sickle cell disease, present state of the field, and current status of the gene therapy clinical trials.